Creating a Date Table in Power BI

Creating a Date Table in Power BI

Often when using Microsoft Power BI, you will find that you need a calendar or date reference for your data to organize it by months or weeks, or even the day of the week. If your data has some date information in it but not the specifics you need, building a DAX date table in Power BI can help.

In your report, in the Modeling tab at the top of the Power BI window, select New Table.

Power BI - New Table Option
Figure 1 – New Table Option

A new blank table will generate.

Power BI - New Blank Table Generated
Figure 2 – Blank Table in Power BI

You need to give your table its first column: Date. Remove the word “Table” and replace it with what you want to name your date table. In this example, I have called the table Date. Then use the CALENDAR function to establish what date range you want your table to hold.

Power BI CALENDAR DAX Function
Figure 3 – CALENDAR DAX Function

In the StartDate and EndDate fields of the CALENDAR function, you cannot simply type a date or you will get an error. You have two options: you can set static dates using the DATE function inside the CALENDAR function or you can reference a date-formatted column in your data source. If you use static dates, you will need to make sure the range you enter covers the entire period of your data and goes far enough into the future that you will not have to adjust it any time soon.

Data Source Based Date Range (recommended):

Table Name = CALENDAR (FIRSTDATE(Reference to date formatted column in data source),LASTDATE(Reference to date formatted column in data source))

Power BI - Data Source Based Date Range
Figure 4 – Data Source Based Date Range

Static Date Range:

Table Name = CALENDAR (DATE(year, month, day)),DATE(year, month, day))

Power BI - Static Date Range
Figure 5 – Static Date Range

Now you have the base starting column listing all dates in the period you specified.

Format the column to fit your needs using the Formatting section in the Modeling tab.

Power BI Table Formatting
Power BI - Table Formatting Section
Figure 6 – Power BI Formatting Section

Next, add columns to provide information and categories to the date rage appropriate for your anticipated needs. Here are the most common columns you will use:

Power BI add column YEAR
Figure 7 – Year = YEAR (Reference Original Date Column)

Power BI - add column month
Figure 8 – Month Number = MONTH (Reference Original Date Column)

Month name = FORMAT (Reference Original Date Column, “MMMM”)
Figure 9 – Month Name =FORMAT (Reference Original Date Column, “MMMM”)

Power BI month and year
Figure 10 – Month + Year = Reference Month Name & “  “ & Reference Year

weekday number
Figure 11 – Weekday Number = WEEKDAY (Reference Original Date Column, 1)

weekday name
Figure 12 – Weekday Name = = FORMAT (Reference Original Date Column, “DDDD”)

week ending date
Figure 13 – Week Ending Date = Reference Original Date Column + (7 – Weekday Number)

quarter definition
Figure 14 – Quarter =  IF(Month Number<4,"Qtr 1",IF(Month Number<7,"Qtr 2",IF(Month Number<10,"Qtr 3","Qtr 4")))

For more DAX date related functions, you can also visit the DAX Function Reference library on the Microsoft Developer Network.

You can use the newly created Date Table in your Power BI report independently, or you can create a relationship between it and your data source (recommended). To link the Date Table and your data source, click the Manage Relationships icon on the right side of the Power BI window.

Power BI - manage relationships icon
Figure 15 – Power BI Manage Relationships Icon

Then click the Manage Relationships button on the top pane.

Power BI Manage Relationships Button
Figure 16 – Manage Relationships Button

Click New and select your data source and the Date Table. Then select the original Date column that created the Date Table and select a date-formatted column in your data source. Cardinality will be One to Many or Many to One depending on what order you selected the two tables. Cross filter direction should be set to Single. The Make this Relationship Active box should be checked. Click OK and your Date Table will be linked to your data source.

Data Table Filter in Power BI
Figure 17 – Data Table Filter

You are now ready to begin using your new Date Table to filter and organize your report.

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